Time Travelling White Mage
Welcome to Eorzea Scribe! :D
Two sites I use personally are Gamerescape's FFXIV page (http://ffxiv.gamerescape.com) and the official Lodestone guide made by SE but editable by players (http://na.finalfantasyxiv.com/lodestone/playguide) which are very helpful for general information about gameplay, content and questing.
If you're into the game's lore, the Lore section on the official forum (be sure to stay the hell away from the rest of the official forums as it's generally a den of eltist douchebaggery), is very interesting, as the game's main Localization lead (Michael-Christopher Koji Fox, alias 'Fernehawles' on the forum) frequently posts there and interacts with players, answering questions and giving deeper insight into some of the game's deeper story mysteries. ;)
Finally, if you're interested in getting into roleplaying your character, the FFXIV Roleplayers community at http://ffxiv-roleplayers.com/index.php is well worth looking at. :)
There are other sites around too (like FFXIVDB, the old FFXIVWiki, Allakhazam etc), but these are the ones I use personally myself. :)